Essentials of Rubin's Pathology, Sixth Edition, is a condensed version of the main title, Rubin's Pathology, 6e. Targeted to students in allied health fields, including dentistry, nursing, physical therapy, physician assistant, chiropractic, and occupational therapy, Essentials of Rubin's Pathology follows the same format as Rubin's Pathology, covering principles and mechanisms of pathology in the first section and organ-specific pathology in the second section. Essentials extracts key information on pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of diseases.
Scientists claim to have finally solved the bloodcurdling mystery, a key breakthrough which has implications for the treatment of bleeding disorders.
A team at Harvard University has in fact uncovered the fundamental feedback mechanism that the body uses to regulate the clotting of blood, by applying cutting-edge techniques in single-molecule manipulation.
Point-of-care testing (POCT) is defined as medical testing at or near the site of patient care. The first reported use of POCT is found in papyrus documents dating back to 1550 B.C., which depict Egyptian physicians using ants to determine glycosuria in patients suspected of having diabetes mellitus. Today, as it was then, the goal of POCT is to provide immediate, convenient, and easy-to-use diagnostic testing that shortens the therapeutic turnaround time when providing care for a patient.
During the past 10 years there has been an increasing concern about the
use of OTC devices in the hospital. This is particularly true when
devices are used in settings where they have not necessarily been
properly validated. An example of this is the use of handheld glucose
meters in high acuity settings such as the intensive care unit, where
they are frequently utilized in the management of patients on tight
glycemic control using intensive insulin therapy.
Along with requirements for personnel qualifications and quality control testing, proficiency testing (External Quality Assessment) is one of the central safeguards of laboratory quality under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) and its regulations. The CLIA regulations have often been compared to a three-legged stool, resting on requirements for personnel qualifications and two performance indicators: quality control testing and proficiency testing. Proficiency testing is the only external performance indicator required by CLIA.
Numerous variables complicate the process involved in obtaining a blood sample. Ask any phlebotomist: a routinely simple blood draw is, by no means, guaranteed. Certain categories of patients make venipuncture especially difficult. Critical care patients undergo more frequent testing and make finding an adequate draw site difficult. Younger and geriatric patients are more susceptible to collapsed veins, limiting the sizes of samples. These scenarios create a very specific but commonly overlooked budgetary problem: redraws.
Clinical Hematology, Fifth Edition covers the theory and procedures involved in the medical diagnosis and treatment of various disorders of the blood and bone marrow. Presented in a highly readable and engaging format, this text is ideally suited for the two-year MLT student. Procedures are organized to adhere to the format suggested by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).
Substitution of the amino acid glutamic acid by valine at position 6 of the beta globin gene (HBB glu6val) results in a mutant haemoglobin that polymerizes at low oxygen pressure. This mutation results in sickle shaped cells under hypoxic conditions. The haemoglobin gets its name, sickle haemoglobin, from the phenomena. Sickling is responsible for symptoms of sickle cell anaemia. Shown above are sickle cells from the smear of a patient with sickle cell anaemia.
HbS is an autosomal co-dominant trait. Homozygous individuals suffer from sickle cell anaemia (SS). The clinical profile of compound heterozygous depends on the non-HbS allele.
The same protein tells beta cells in the pancreas to stop making insulin and then to self-destruct as diabetes worsens, according to a University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) study published online 25 August in the journal Nature Medicine
Specifically, the research revealed that a protein called TXNIP controls the ability of beta cells to make insulin, the hormone that regulates blood-sugar levels.
A study led by Boston University School of Medicine has identified a
novel approach to create an unlimited number of human red blood cells
and platelets in vitro. In collaboration with Boston University School
of Public Health (BUSPH) and Boston Medical Center (BMC), the
researchers differentiated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into
these cell types, which are typically obtained through blood donations.
This finding could potentially reduce the need for blood donations to
treat patients requiring blood transfusions and could help researchers
examine novel therapeutic targets to treat a variety of diseases,
including sickle cell disease.
I don’t understand gene mutations. Are mutations like the Philadelphia chromosome present from birth? If so how do people ever survive? Wouldn’t the mutation cause a crisis much sooner than adulthood?
That’s a great question! I love it because it’s one of those questions that can persist even after you sit through lecture, or do whatever reading you’re supposed to do for class. For whatever reason, it’s something you’re just expected to know, even though it’s not really explained outright. It’s great to identify and put those questions into words, so you can get an answer and clear things up now (rather than carrying that hole in your knowledge for years and years).
Gut bacteria exert a dramatic, systemic effect on the development of the immune system's B-lymphocytes, according to a new mouse study by researchers at Boston Children's Hospital. While influences of gut bacteria on T-lymphocytes have been noted before, this is the first time that researchers have documented early B-cell development in the gut and that microbes influence this process.
Starting at birth, the immune system programs immature B-cells to produce antibodies against a wide array of potentially pathogenic antigens by shuffling genes for different antibody components. This shuffling process, called V(D)J recombination, depends on a factor called RAG, which results in an immense number of B-cells that collectively are able to respond to a diverse repertoire of antigens that the immune system has yet to encounter.
Since the invention of the microscope artists have been inspired by the beauty of life at the cellular level. Microorganisms live in our bodies, our food and all around us. We need some to survive; others we do better without. This show creates an opportunity to explore the beauty of natural forms not visible to the naked eye, how we imagine microorganisms, and how we fit into the whole spectrum of life.
Choosing the sex of babies born via IVF is a realistic, but illegal, possibility. However, a leading medical ethicist argues there’s no justification for the ban
Scientific research has the power to transform society but “with great power comes great responsibility” and so much of this is regulated by law. Advances in reproductive technology are one example of this paradigm and raise a host of ethical dilemmas. We have the science and the tools, but the actual process
is illegal in the UK under most circumstances. However, leading bioethicist, Professor Stephen Wilkinson has argued recently that this ban on choosing the sex of an unborn baby is not ethically justifiable.
But pain is more than the body’s miniature cattle prod to get us to heed a wound, rest a swollen ankle, or stop eating chili peppers. Pain may be the language between animals and microbes.
Far from being a product of an inflamed immune system, aggravated nerves far from the spine and brain appear to communicate with invading bacteria and regulate the fight against them, according to a study published online lately in the journal Nature. And at least one tenacious bacterium shows the ability to manipulate a pain signal to put the brakes on a mammal's molecular defenses, the study suggests.
Children’s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, is one of only 60 hospitals in the country solely dedicated to the care of patients under the age of 18. Children’s Mercy is the only freestanding children’s hospital located between St. Louis and Denver, also has the distinction of being among the most innovative with its large scale adoption of AccuVein vein illumination. Children’s Mercy recently incorporated 32 AV300’s into their standard of care across the facility. AccuVein Inc., is the global leader in vein illumination and the creator of the AV300, the world’s only hand-held, non-contact vein illumination device.
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has been a major challenge for patients and clinicians. Recurrence of infection after treatment with standard antibiotics is becoming more common with the emergence of more-resistant strains of C difficile. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an alternative treatment for recurrent C difficile infection, but it is not yet widely used.
Fecal microbiota transplantation involves instilling gut microbiota from a healthy donor into the diseased gut of a patient who has recurrent or recalcitrant episodes of diarrhea despite antibiotic treatment for C difficile infection. The instillation can be done via nasogastric tube, endoscope, or enema. Donor screening is necessary to prevent transmission of communicable diseases to the recipient. Recently published studies indicate that this procedure is effective for treating recurrent C difficile infection. Randomized clinical trials to assess its efficacy and safety are underway. The field of microbiota therapy is rapidly progressing. More physicians are learning to embrace the concept of fecal microbiota transplantation, and patients are beginning to overcome the “yuck factor” and accept its benefits.
Wash your hands all the time. Sterilize your kitchen counters. Take antibiotics whenever you have a cough or an itchy throat. Avoid dirt and pets and farms. Do everything you can to keep away those germs.
Such antimicrobial views used to be broadly accepted and beaten into us further by many in the medical community and by diverse marketing efforts. Sure, we have known about the important role of beneficial microbes in the lives of various plants and animals for many many years. And we certainly knew about some “good microbes” living in and on us. But somehow humans seem to have been generally viewed as – well – bigger than all this. Better. Able to go about our daily lives without depending on others. Especially things so – well – small.
Can cookies describe what a doctor is looking for in a CBC? (complete blood cell count) With the capable artistic hands of Ms. Humble from Not So Humble Pie and the scientific knowledge of Joanne, they can! Learn about the formed elements of blood: red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils) and platelets in a series of videos that begins here!
Does good cholesterol still predict heart risk after bad cholesterol is controlled by statin therapy?
Yes, according to a post-hoc analysis of data from the controversial COURAGE trial, appearing in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
No, according to Dutch researchers whose report on the Secondary Manifestations of Arterial Disease (SMART) study also appears in the journal.
Those findings mimic the state of the field, according to Jacques Genest, MD, of McGill University in Montreal -- it's just not yet clear whether the mass of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is even an appropriate biomarker for heart risk.
A novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multiparallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform has been developed for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites.
Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis.
The qPCR was able to distinguish between patients without parasites and those with polyparasitism more accurately and with greater detection rates than direct smear microscopy.
HPV has been found in the sperm of infected men. This can harm a
man’s ability to have children. This is particularly true in those who
have both HPV (human papillomavirus), which is the most common sexually
transmitted viral disease (STD), and Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), which
is the most common bacterial STD.
The German and Italian researchers who conducted the study wrote
that, “A high incidence of HPV infection has been reported in sperm from
sexually active men… and from infertile patients.” In addition,
they wrote that sperm in HPV and Ct infected men did not move or “swim”
like healthy sperm.
I’ve met a lot of people and learned a lot while traveling Europe the past several weeks. Of all the things I have had to explain to fellow travels as not only an American – but a Texan – by far the most frustrating thing is our stubborn refusal to embrace the metric system. I can confidently argue the finer points of how the use of y’all and the plural form all y’all are descriptive and have a place in the American lexicon. I take pleasure in explaining the intricacies of chicken fried foods.
But the metric system is another matter. “I don’t understand why y’all don’t use the metric system” is something I’ve heard too often. I don’t argue with them because there is no technical argument for why we haven’t adopted the Système Internationale – our refusal is based on emotion and familiarity.
People who have suicidal ideations do not always seek psychiatric help or discuss these thoughts with friends or loved ones. Therefore, the development of a simple blood test to predict when an individual has a higher risk for self-harm has been a long-term goal of the medical community. Now, a team of researchers at Indiana University in Indianapolis has found a handful of molecular indicators that can increase the accuracy of predictions of future suicide-related hospitalizations. The team reported its findings today (August 20) in Molecular Psychiatry.
Infection during a newborn's first 7 days of life is associated with bacterial infection or colonization in the mother
Newborns of mothers with laboratory-confirmed infection had an odds ratio of 6.6 (95%CI 3.9-11.2) for laboratory-confirmed infection themselves compared with newborns of mothers without laboratory-confirmed infection. Newborns of mothers with colonization had an odds ratio of 9.4 (95%CI 3.1-28.5) of laboratory-confirmed infection compared with newborns of non-colonized mothers. Furthermore, newborns of mothers with risk factors for infection (prelabour rupture of membranes, preterm <37 weeks prelabour rupture of membranes, and prolonged rupture of membranes) had an odds ratio of infection of 2.3 (95%CI 1.0-5.4) compared with newborns of mothers without risk factors.
Prothrombin time was described by Quick in 1935. It is the time taken by re-calcified plasma to clot in the presence of tissue procoagulant extract known as thromboplastin. It asses the efficiency of the extrinsic coagulation system. The test depends on activation of factor X by factor VII by tissue factor.
The details of the method are beyond the scope of this text. The outline is as follows. Thromboplastin is added to plasma that has been separated from blood collected in sodium citrate and allowed time to mix. To this mixture calcium chloride is added. The time taken for the plasma to clot is the prothrombin time. The end point (clotting) may be determined manually or using automated (optical or magnetic) methods.
Preliminary estimates released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the number of Americans diagnosed with Lyme disease each year is around 300,000.
This early estimate is based on findings from three ongoing CDC studies that use different methods, but all aim to define the approximate number of people diagnosed with Lyme disease each year. The first project analyzes medical claims information for approximately 22 million insured people annually for six years, the second project is based on a survey of clinical laboratories and the third project analyzes self-reported Lyme disease cases from a survey of the general public.
Michael Noble suspect that most laboratorians understand why they are required to participate in proficiency testing. That does not make it any easier to accept. In over 30 years I don’t recall many technologists or microbiologists telling me that they look forward to receiving and testing our challenge samples. But the important thing is that they do it anyways.
Recently they sent out a survey to our participants asking questions about the relationship between proficiency testing and quality management(see results in the image).
By carefully adjusting the function of crucial immune cells, scientists may have developed a completely new type of cancer immunotherapy—harnessing the body's immune system to attack tumors. To accomplish this, they had to thread a needle in immune function, shrinking tumors without triggering unwanted autoimmune responses.
The new research, performed in animals, is not ready for clinical use in humans. However, the approach, making use of a key protein to control immune function, lends itself to further study using candidate drugs that employ the same mechanisms.
"This preclinical study demonstrates proof of principle that using a drug to regulate the function of a special, immunosuppressive subset of so-called T-regulatory (Treg) cells safely controls tumor growth," said study leader Wayne W. Hancock, M.D., Ph.D., of the Division of Transplant Immunology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). "It really moves the field along towards a potentially major, new cancer immunotherapy."
Microbes are tiny synthetic masters, producing molecules that have led to many important drugs. Chemists want new ways to sift through the compounds produced by microbes to find the next big drug lead. Now, scientists report a mass spectrometry technique that allows them to monitor molecules produced by living microorganisms in real time.
As chemists screen through large numbers of microbial colonies to find novel compounds, they need to be able to take quick snapshots of a colony’s molecular profile, says Pieter C. Dorrestein, a bioanalytical mass spectrometrist at the University of California, San Diego. Current analytical methods either require putting microbes in a vacuum chamber, which kills them, or collecting compounds and separating them before identification, which is time consuming.
It has recently come to our attention that the etiology and suitability of fresh frozen plasma with a marked green color are not well understood by a significant number of anesthesia providers. Approximately 0.3% of the inventory of fresh frozen plasma is greenish in color.
On June 24, 2012, a 60-year-old Saudi man died from severe pneumonia complicated by renal failure. He had arrived at a hospital in Jiddah 11 days earlier, and some of his symptoms were similar to those in severe cases of influenza or SARS, but this wasn't either of those diseases.
This was something new. Last September, an Egyptian virologist announced what it was: The illness was caused by a new virus in a family called coronaviruses, which includes the virus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS. Several months later, epidemiologists named the new illness MERS, for Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome. MERS, like its relative SARS, probably originated in animals.
Those revelations only bred more questions. First, where did this new virus come from, and how? Tracking a disease's jump from animals to humans often means untangling a very complicated scientific mystery - a mystery that, in the interest of public health, must be solved quickly.